Digital Inclusion, Broadband, e-Government
Digital Inclusion as social inclusion in the 21st century that ensures individuals and disadvantaged groups have access to, and skills to use, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and are therefore able to participate in and benefit from governments growing knowledge and information society. Community technology programs, including those providing community labs (such as Community Technology Centers) are Digital Inclusion programs. They enable residents of different areas to be included in the digital society by helping these residents access technology, build skills, and make beneficial use of digital content. The technological revolution is changing the way we live and work. Technology has the potential to transform the lives of unemployed, disadvantaged and socially isolated people. As information and communication technology becomes more commonplace, competence with computers and familiarity with online services are needed to participate in the modern world.
The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device (and the broader the band, the greater the capacity for traffic). Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. Its origin is in physics, acoustics and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to wideband. However, the term became popularized through the 1990s as a vague marketing term for Internet access. In telecommunications, a broadband signaling method is one that includes or handles a relatively wide range (or band) of frequencies. Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider (or broader) the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the information-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality. In radio, a very narrow-band signal will carry Morse code; and broader bands will carry speech and more.
E-Government (short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government, or connected government) is digital interactions between a government and citizens (G2C), government and businesses/Commerce (G2B), government and employees (G2E), and also between government and governments /agencies (G2G). Essentially, the e-Government delivery models can be briefly summed up as (Jeong, 2007): G2C (Government to Citizens) G2B (Government to Businesses) G2E (Government to Employees) G2G (Government to Governments) C2G (Citizens to Governments) This digital interaction consists of governance, information and communication technology (ICT), business process re-engineering (BPR), and e-citizen at all levels of government (city, state/provence, national, and international). Electronic Government or 'e-Government' essentially refers to ‘The utilization of IT, ICTs, and other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance access.